What tools are used for tooth extraction

removal of a tooth Depending on the degree of tooth damage, the doctor decides whether to keep or remove a tooth. First of all, any doctor considers the general condition of the oral cavity and, if possible, recommends the preservation or restoration of the decaying areas.

Unfortunately, people do not always come for help on time. The result of this attitude is the removal of one or more teeth.

Depending on the severity of the work, the medical history and the results of the examination, dental treatment with anesthetics is performed.

Contents of

  • When tooth extraction can not be avoided?
  • Basic tool - forceps of different types and shapes
  • Auxiliary tools for special cases
  • Application of forceps
    • Methods of tool retention
  • Extraction process using
  • elevators Using

elevators When tooth extraction can not be avoided?

As a result of which indications it is more often necessary to remove the teeth:

  • often people come with rather severe pain, because of which it is
    impossible to concentrate on anything or somehow eliminate it, this indicates the catastrophic lesion of the tooth row of ;
  • there are cases when purulent secretion accumulates inside or around the teeth, resulting in a disease such as periapical abscess ;
  • The most common cause is tooth decay , which is very widespread on the tooth surface, resulting in partial and complete destruction of the tooth;
  • no less frequent periodontal disease .

In cases where it is not possible to do the restoration, clean the affected areas of the dentition, as well as in the retreatment or dislocation of the teeth( outside the dentition, superfluous), the aching teeth are removed.

A dentist uses special medical aids and tools for this kind of surgery. Most often, only a few types of tools are used for tooth extraction: elevators, chisels, forceps, luxators.

The main tool - forceps of different types and shapes

Surgical forceps are of two basic types - root, intended for root removal, and coronary, which are used by dental forceps to remove the tooth with a crown.

The roots of teeth are removed by root forceps, as they have convergence in the closing of the cheeks. They are divided into several varieties: S-shaped, straight, bayonet, bottom-root. At each dental operation one of them is applied.

This depends on the location of the slope under which you have to work:

  • lower-root type of forceps: removal of all teeth in the lower row of the jaw;
  • straight : for incisors and canines of the upper jaw;
  • bayonet and S-shaped variety: maxillary molars, premolars.

The forceps can be narrow, which are designed to eliminate narrow crowns( mandibular incisors, roots).In their structure, each molar species differs in the structure of the cheeks and belongs to the three groups: lower-malar, right-sided upper and lower-left upper-malar.

For example, in the lower molar group of tweezers on both sides of the cheeks there is a spine that enters the root bifurcation upon application.

When working with the lower jaw, there is no difference between removing the teeth of the right and left sides, so the same kind of tool is used.

When removing the top painters, tweezers with a spike located on one side are taken, the second side has a smooth rounding.

The special arrangement of the upper molar roots is due to the use of the same type of forceps.

Varieties of forceps for tooth extraction

When the left and right-side teeth of the maxillary row are removed, the instruments are taken with different spike arrangements on the cheeks, depending on how it is more convenient to work in a particular case.

Auxiliary tool for special cases

Elevators, luxators and chisels are needed when retreaded teeth or roots are removed. In dental surgery, only some of all types of elevators are used:

  1. Elevator of W. James : there are three types - straight, left and right, curved. All of them are used for complex extraction of teeth or roots.
  2. Cryer elevator : design, as in the previous version, but there is a difference in appearance - a triangular cheek with a sharp apex at the end. Typical differences in the right and left-sided designs.
  3. Kupland chisel : used as an adjusting lever between the alveolar bone and roots to expand the hole for easy removal or replacement of the elevator. It is very cumbersome to remove, so more thin tools are often used.
  4. : easily penetrates the periodontal zone thanks to the sharp, shilo-shaped design. In this case, injuring the alveolar bones is very low, which makes the operation much easier. Today, doctors often use lavers instead of forceps.
Stomatological dentist

Stomatological dentist

Application of forceps

For different groups of teeth, different tweezers are used. Each of them has a brunch( handle), a lock and a cheek( working part).retention of a dental instrument

Technically they all resemble each other, but they have some differences in the structural details. There was this need for differences because the functionality of each tool is limited and for the various operations required the most appropriate one is needed.

The upper or lower jaw is treated, the location of the tooth( taking into account the angle of work with it and the difficulty), whether the roots or crowns are removed. Each of the forms of the cheeks must correspond to the specific structure of the tooth.

How to hold the tool

tooth extraction with forceps When the tooth is removed, the doctor uses the right hand to use the forceps. The position of the fingers should be such that it is convenient to move and push apart the gouging branches.

The forceps themselves hold themselves in a special way, in which it is most easy to move them under the gums along the tooth axis.

The basic ways to hold the tweezers are two:

  1. Holding the two handles with the right hand of the with 1, 2, 3 fingers so that they( the fingers) are placed between the jaws so that they can be opened at any convenient moment. When the handles are connected, the 4 and 5 fingers are removed.
  2. It is used when working with the upper row of teeth : the thumb grips one jaw, and the 5 and 4 fingers hold the other. The tips should rest on the palm of your hand to make it easier to move the instrument. Then the handles move apart, the 3 finger straightens, and then connect with the fold of 5, 4 fingers. When 3 fingers are removed after the forceps have been applied, having compressed all the fingers except 2.

Extraction process using

elevators The elevator is used as a lever tool. Structurally, several subspecies are distinguished, which are used for different complexity of operations - for the convenience and simplification of the process of removing the damaged tooth: angular, straight, bayonet.

When removed, the first and second fingers of the left hand grasp the alveolar process, the right arm forces the elevator's working part into the periodontal opening, which expands under the influence of the instrument.

Periodontal fibers are torn apart. At the same time, the elevator is rotated. After it entered the depth of 4-6 mm, it is used as a lever and, with some effort of the dentist, which is transferred to the cheek, the tooth is squeezed out of the alveoli.

Almost the same is the operation to eliminate the retin / half-retina molars. The elevator is used here straight. For the lower and upper it is better to use a fissure burr or a chisel, after which you can remove the roots with an elevator. The remains of the root system are removed by narrow long tweezers( for the maxillary row) and by an angular elevator( for the mandibular row).

Extraction of the tooth by the elevator

Use of the

Do not think that the stress state during extraction of teeth occurs only in the patient. Often, doctors experience equally severe stress, especially if the process does not go as smoothly as one would like. But why is it so difficult to perform the operation:

  1. Firstly, , this is due to the location of the bone relative to the roots.
  2. Secondly, , the periodontal ligament tends to hold the tooth, regardless of the degree of its destruction or the process that needs to be performed. This is its main task.
  3. Thirdly, , a strong effect is exerted by atmospheric pressure, in which it is very difficult to pull the tooth, if the hole is not yet filled with blood or air. This effect is somewhat similar to the action of gravity.

Therefore, in order not to severely injure the patient( as well as the doctor), a tremendous instrument - a luxator - was created. With it, you can make removal much easier and safer.

The work uses a certain size, which is best suited for a particular spine. The working part is gently inserted under the gum at a slight angle.

luxe retaining

Ways of using the

lumper This disconnecting vibrational motion facilitates the separation of periodontal fibers, widens the well, which leads to the elimination of vacuum in that region. Thanks to this method, it is much easier to pull the tooth with forceps. But if the root is only one, then they will not be required.

The tool handle is placed in the hand in such a way that the index finger is on the working surface in the direction of the upper part, and the remaining fingers are conveniently covered by the jaw.

The movements are made by gentle jiggling so that the tool can not slip during operation, and also for more accurate entry. Thus, this substantially covers the whole process, including the size of the future wound after the removal of the tooth.

Use of extractors for tooth extraction:

Regardless of the tool used by the doctor, it is necessary to thoroughly check the hole for root debris, and also to work the surface well, so that no germs enter it. Usually the dentist gives a disinfectant gauze ball, which after a while needs to be spit out.

If the bleeding is very severe, it may be necessary to change the gauze swab several times. In this case, it is better to take care of this beforehand and buy it in a pharmacy, so that later you do not have to ask something under the influence of anesthesia that still has influence.