Periodontitis refers to inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity at which changes occur in the condition of periodontal tissues. The disease can bring a lot of discomfort to the patient, especially in severe stages, when only maintenance treatment is possible.
Therefore, timely diagnostics of periodontitis and differentiation from other diseases that are similar in the clinic, at the very beginning of its development, is very important.
The first thing a dentist does when he sees a patient is collecting an anamnesis. The doctor specifies the following data:
After the history is collected, a thorough examination of the entire oral cavity begins. For each of the stages of periodontitis will be characterized by its manifestations:
In all cases, dental deposits will be present.
This study is based on the staining of glycogen deposited in the periodontal inflammatory processes with an iodine solution. Depending on the intensity of staining, the extent of the changes that occur is determined.
The more brighter, the more pronounced inflammation. For evaluation, the following gradation is used:
The Schiller-Pisarev test is not specific. With its help, you can determine the dynamics of the treatment.
This index allows you to take into account all the signs of periodontal pathology.
The condition of the tissues around each individual tooth is assessed. The calculation of the index is carried out according to the formula: PI = the sum of all the estimates submitted / total number of teeth.
Interpretation of the results:
Used to determine the stability of capillaries to the action of vacuum. In the process of research, Kulazhenko's apparatus is used. It leads to the formation of a hematoma on the gum, the time of its appearance and the degree of damage to the walls of the vessels.
The formation of a hematoma with periodontitis occurs 8-9 times faster.
One of the most informative studies in periodontitis is panoramic radiography or orthopantomography. X-ray examination allows you to more accurately assess the degree of bone tissue changes and clarify the diagnosis.
With a mild degree of periodontitis, the resorption of the interdental partitions is 1/3.The average degree is associated with a decrease in the amount of bone to ½.In severe disease, bone is absent already by 2/3.
Depth measurement of pathological pockets also allows to determine the degree of tissue damage. For this, a buttoned graduated probe, gutta-peristal pins and contrast solutions are used.
A biopsy of the gingival tissue will be informative. As a result, an accurate diagnosis will be obtained that will confirm the changes corresponding to rheumatic, hereditary and autoimmune diseases.
For greater effectiveness of treatment, microbiological and cytological examination of the contents of the dentogingival pockets is carried out. In the same way, the degree of changes that occur in the periodontal tissues is determined.
Investigation of the gum liquid composition will give an idea of the severity of inflammatory phenomena. A large number of immune cells indicate a far-gone process.
Differential diagnosis of periodontitis is necessary with the following diseases:
Diagnosis is easy enough. For this, you need to carefully collect anamnesis and conduct a complete examination of the patient.
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