Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are the most important components of the diet. They are divided into monosaccharides( glucose, fructose, galactose), disaccharides( sucrose, maltose, lactose), digestible polysaccharides( starch, glycogen) and indigestible polysaccharides( dietary fibers).Monosaccharides and disaccharides have a sweet taste, and therefore they are called sugars. If the sweetness of sucrose is estimated at 100 points, then in comparison with her lactose will receive 16 points, maltose and galactose - 32, glucose - 81 and fructose - 173 points. Disaccharides and digestible polysaccharides split in the human body with the formation of glucose and fructose. Oxidation of glucose is accompanied by the formation of significant amounts of adenositriphosphoric acid( ATP), which is a source of a unique type of energy. Only its use ensures the continuity of almost all physiological functions, and above all - of higher nervous activity. During wakefulness, the energy of glucose replenishes almo

st half of the body's energy expenditure. Under certain conditions, part of the glucose, sometimes significant, becomes a body's own fat.

The calorie content of the daily diet of the inhabitant of the planet due to carbohydrates averaged 1680 kcal. In industrialized countries, this provided about 50%, and in developing countries - about 75 people's energy costs. Accordingly, about 52% and 66% of the carbohydrates consumed in these countries were cereal crops.

The most traditional suppliers of carbohydrates now in the world are starch products - flour, cereals and potatoes. Practically healthy people, taking into account the age, nature and intensity of their work per day, it is necessary to consume 300-500 g of carbohydrates. At athletes in the days of intense training and competition, the daily norm of carbohydrates can increase to 600-700 g, although this component of nutrition is not considered indispensable. Quite often, and with large energy costs almost always, the daily ration in total should contain at least 50 grams of monosaccharides and disaccharides. Otherwise, oxidative processes with a secondary formation of undesirable ketone bodies are intensified in the body. In addition, for energy needs, muscle and some other proteins of the body, as well as part of the amino acids that are supplied with food, are being consumed. Excess carbohydrates in the diet, especially easily digestible, causes excess of normal blood glucose levels. This condition is one of the causes of obesity. The food ration should contain about 25 g of indigestible carbohydrates, or, as they were formerly called, ballast substances.

More on the topic: