Various disorders of dietary habits contribute significantly( from 10 to 40%) in the causes of the development of human diseases. There is no doubt that the health of children is largely determined by the nutrition of women, which is especially important during pregnancy. Recent research shows that the role of inadequate or unbalanced nutrition can be compared with the role of genetic factors and active chemical or infectious effects. This was shown by epidemiological studies of the last 15 to 20 years.
Diseases caused by protein-energy deficiency( such as cachexia, kwashiorkor and marasmus) primarily relate to diseases caused by malnutrition.
Children are the most vulnerable population group in relation to protein deficiency, especially during breastfeeding and early life( 6 months to 4 years).Kwashiorkor is a disease that develops in children due to protein deficiency. Its name means "red boy" or, in another interpretation, "weaned child".This disease
One of the causes of this disease can be called a monotonous carbohydrate diet. Kwashiorkor( or childhood dystrophy), as well as a disease such as cachexia, are widespread in several areas of West Africa. Kwashiorkor develops in cases when a child is weaned from the breast and transferred to a protein-poor starch diet. This disease is expressed in slowing the growth and development of the child, changing skin color and hair, depigmentation, changing the state of the mucous membranes, worsening the functions of many systems, more digestive( such as dyspepsia and persistent diarrhea).In especially severe cases, the kwashiorkor is manifested by the appearance of edema and mental disorders.
Cachexia develops as a result of a low-calorie diet, depleted of specific amino acids. Its name comes from the Greek words kakos - bad and hexis - the state. The disease is characterized by deep exhaustion and physical weakness of the body. As a result of the development of cachexia, symptoms such as weight loss, weight loss, dryness and flabbiness of the skin, loss of hair, the disappearance of subcutaneous fat, atrophy of muscles and internal organs, as well as a decrease in the content of whey protein. There may also be swelling, hemorrhage, and in some cases, mental disorders. The causes of cachexia may include prolonged malnutrition or starvation, severe metabolic disorders, chronic arsenic poisoning, lead, mercury, fluoride, severe digestive tract damage( such as atrophy of the intestinal mucosa and condition after resection of the stomach and intestines).It can also be caused by severe tuberculosis and other chronic infections, some lesions of the endocrine glands( pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, pancreas), extensive and long-lasting non-healing wounds, suppuration, malignant tumors( especially the esophagus and stomach).
Pregnant women and nursing mothers are another most vulnerable group. In them, protein deficiency develops for the most part with a general lack of food and is characterized by hypoproteinemia, a decrease in the osmotic pressure of the blood, and the appearance of so-called "hunger edema."This condition is called alimentary dystrophy.
Shilov VN, Mits'yo VP"Healthy Nutrition"
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