Active substances in the composition of plants( essential oils, resins)

Active substances in plants( essential oils, resins)

Active substances in the composition of plants( essential oils, resins)

Essential oils are fragrant, easily volatile substances, contained in various plant organs, but mainly in leaves and flowers. Essential oils are easily distilled from plant material by steam and are essentially mixtures of various terpenoid substances. The most common ethereal plants include peppermint, valerian officinalis, creeping thyme, common oregano, lemon balm, bitter wormwood, medicinal sage, fennel. Essential oils have an anti-inflammatory effect, they also noted the presence of antiviral and antimicrobial activity. There are also expectorant and calming cough properties of vegetable essential oils, as well as the ability to stimulate the work of the gastrointestinal tract. Essential oils are widely used to improve, and sometimes change the taste and smell of medicines( pink, mint, coriander oil), in the food industry. When preparing essential oil plants, it should be borne in mind that under the influence of oxygen, sunlight and

moisture, essential oils oxidize, lose odor, change color and lose their valuable properties. Therefore, it is necessary to strictly observe the rules for collection, drying and storage of plants and preparations from them containing essential oils.

Essential oils - odorous volatile substances that are produced in the oil-forming glands, scales and hairs of plants. Evaporating, they penetrate the shell of leaves, flowers and fruits of plants and cause their smell. The biological role of essential oils in plant life is still not fully understood. It is known, however, that essential oils fulfill the functions of at-tractant, , that is, odors attracting insects, animals and birds, and repellents - repellent and repellent odors. Essential oils are characterized by a very complex composition: rose oil contains more than 200 organic substances, and mint - 100 components.

Essential oils are produced by essential oil plants. This group combines single and perennial plants of different families: coriander, caraway seeds, fennel, dill, anise( umbellate), mint, lavender, sage( labiate), rose( rose-colored), pelargonium pink( geranium), tuberose( amaryllis) and others. These plants accumulate essential oils in various parts and organs. Umbelliferous cultures concentrate oils in fruits ( seeds);mint, geranium, basil - in green foliage;rose, lavender, tuberose - in colors and inflorescences; iris, angelica, vetiver - in the roots of and rhizomes.

Resins - are close to essential oils and are often kept with them. These are thick liquids, sticky to the touch, possessing a characteristic aroma. Resins that do not dry out for a long time are called balms. As an example, we can mention the resins contained in pine, rhubarb roots. Resins of many plants have a pronounced bactericidal, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing effect. In medicine, resins are used to make plasters, tinctures.

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