An annual herbaceous plant 30-50 cm high. Its motherland is the eastern Mediterranean. It has long been cultivated in many countries. Probably, coriander is the oldest known spice in the history of mankind. It is mentioned in the Old Testament and in the ancient Sanskrit texts. It was used by its ancient Greeks and Romans, from whom it spread throughout Europe. Coriander was valued not only as a spice and medicinal plant, but also as an additive to wine. His seeds were found in ancient Egyptian tombs. The most widespread coriander is grown in Transcaucasia under the name "coriander".In food, young coriander leaves are used most often before the plant begins to form fibrous stems( stems).
Coriander has two kinds of leaves. Lower petiolate, simple or pinnately dissected, and upper two- or three-part pinnately divided with linear or entire segments. Flowers are white or pink. In food, tender young leaves are used.
Contains 0.4-0.8% essential oil, pectin, vitamin C, carotene( up to 12%), rutin, vitamins B1 and B2, tannins, sugar, starch, etc. The main component of essential oil is linalool60-70%) and geraniol. In the process of aging, seeds lose color, the content of essential oil in them decreases. For obtaining greens, use essential oil varieties coriander Beam, Smena, Amber and local samples - populations. Coriander samples from Armenia are especially appreciated, which are characterized by good leafiness and resistance to stalking.
Coriander is a cold-resistant crop. Young plants can withstand frosts up to -5-8 ° С.Seeds begin to germinate at 6 ° C.The most favorable temperature for the growth and development of plants in the range of 22-25 ° C.The highest yields of greens yield on sandy loamy and loamy non-acid soils, which are sufficiently filled with organic fertilizers. Place coriander after potatoes, legumes and other vegetable crops. The soil is prepared from autumn - dig at a depth of 20 cm, make 2-3 kg of manure, compost and mineral fertilizers. In spring the soil is only loosened up. Seeds are sown early in the spring, when the soil is still wet, which helps to obtain amicable shoots. With a lack of moisture in the soil, the shoots can be sparse, the plants form a small rosette and quickly move to stalking. The sowing of a private with rows between rows is 25-30 cm( in large areas 60-70 cm).Depth of seeding - 1-2 cm. Care of crops is the loosening of rows, weeding and 2-3 watering during the dry period. From shoots to green takes 30-50 days, after which the plants begin to form a stem. By the time of harvest, the plants reach a height of 10-15 cm. To obtain seeds, coriander is sown in the spring in the first half of May or during the winter.
To have fresh coriander greens throughout the summer and autumn, you must sow it portion by section in 12-18 days. The shortest period before harvesting from the June sowing period.
Stimulates the work of the gastrointestinal tract, activates the work of the stomach, enhances the activity of the digestive glands and thereby normalizes digestion. Essential oils have wound healing and analgesic effect. Essential oil of coriander is used in pharmaceuticals for the preparation of galenic preparations, which are used to improve digestion and against flatulence.
Seeds have a pleasant spicy smell reminiscent of anise, and first a pleasant and later sharp spicy taste. Coriander is used in the production of liqueurs, sausages, in the perfume industry, and in England and Germany - for the production of beer. Coriander is a part of various pastilles, which are used by smokers to eliminate the unpleasant odor.
Drink from coriander
1 liter of beverage, 20 g of coriander, 800 g of water, 120 g of sugar, 200 g of grape juice( you can have another juice)
Coriander pour boiling water and cook in a sealed container with a weak boil for 20-30 minutes, insist 10-15 minutes and strain. Add sugar and cook for 2-3 minutes. After cooling, pour in the cooled grape juice. In cooking, greens and coriander seeds are used to make salads, rice, fried pork, compote of apples and for preserving fruits, it is added to dough products, vegetable dishes, sauces, goulash and some types of fish. Many use coriander for making sausages and various meat products. It is added to honey cakes, marzipan and to a variety of dry biscuits. Coriander improves the taste of dishes from peas, beans and lentils. Add it to cabbage, pate from game and poultry, red beets, apple puree, carrots and stuffing for stuffed poultry.
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